These Surname Projects are co-organized by
Gregory A. Parker
We do this voluntarily to help families and genealogists (amateurs, hobbyist and professionals).
Be sure to visit the web site developed by Dennis West
Parker Family DNA Project.
provides additional information.
I particularily like viewing the
Distribution of the Parker Surname
in the 1880 United States Census.
You may also want to visit his
Frequently Asked Questions
page for additional information.
Alphabetical List of Surnames of Interest:
Ross and variants of these surnames.
Interesting Additional DNA Projects of Interest:
- mtDNA for the British Isles (England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales)
- mtDNA for Germany
- mtDNA for Greece
- Y-DNA for Greece
- mtDNA for Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden)
- Y-DNA for Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden)
- mtDNA for North Carolina and Virginia
Questions we hope to answer:
How are your ancestors related to other families in our DNA Project?
What are the ancestral origins of each family?
How to contact other family geneaolgists within your family group.
Genetic Genealogy utilizes both DNA and conventional genealogy to trace our ancestors. Just like
census records, court records, other conventioanl genealogy sources our DNA can provide important clues
for discovering our ancestors.
The Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA) is passed from father to son. Females do not have this chromosome.
Therefore the Y-DNA provides useful information on our direct paternal lines.
If two males have very similar Y-DNA they probably have a common male ancestor. If you are a male
your Y-DNA is almost identical to your father, paternal grandfather, paternal great-grandfather and so on.
This means that your Y-DNA will be almost idential to your cousins Y-DNA provided that both of you share a
common paternal ancestor. On the other hand two individuals with significantly different Y-DNA do not share
a common paternal male ancestor within recent history.
The mitochrondrial DNA (mtDNA) is passed from a mother to all of her children.
Although males have mtDNA they cannot pass it to their children.
The mtDNA provides useful information on our maternal lines.
Your mtDNA is almost identical to your mother, maternal grandmother, maternal great-grandmother and so on.
This means that your mtDNA will be almost idential to your cousins mtDNA provided that both of you share a
common maternal ancestor.
On the other hand two individual with significantly different mtDNA do not share
a common maternal female ancestor within recent history.
The mtDNA does not change (mutate) as rapidly as the Y-DNA.
Hence, two individuals with very similar mtDNA do not necessarily have a common maternal ancestor within recorded history.
We inherit autosomal DNA from both of our parents.
In the furture our autosomal DNA will provide useful information on all of our recent ancestors.
The Combination of genealogical records and DNA can be very useful in our ancestral quest.
Haplogroups are used by scientists to study migration patterns of our ancient ancestors. These ancestors
lived before recorded history and are of little interest to genealogists. However, we use haplogroups and subclades
to catergorize our DNA results. Haplogroups represent our most ancient ancestors. Haplogroups are subdivided into subclades.
Our subclade represent more recent ancestors but are still too ancient to be of major interest to genealogists. The subclades
are subdivided into family groups. Family groups are of primary interest to genetic genealogists. Y-DNA family groups are often
associated with particular surnames. The most common exception stems from using patrnimic surnames as is commonly done in Scandavian Countries.
The DNA used by genetic genealogists is called "junk DNA" since it does not provide information about physical or medical characteristics.
The only exception to this is DYS464. An individual with a null DYS464 results may be infertile. This result is very uncommon and we do not have
any individual with a null DYS464 result.
By using the links in the following tables you will be able to see all of
our current DNA results and thousands of pages of associated conventional genealogical records.
All of our participants are identified by a code to protect their privacy and we only provide information on deceased individuals.
I am so confident that these DNA results do not provide any medical information that I divulge my identity. I am in haplogroup R, subclade R1b1c9, family group PF02,
and finally individual P16.